Vol 19, No 2 (2022)

Modern trends in education

Development of psychological and pedagogical classes of the Orenburg region

Allagulov A.M., Kuz'menkova O.V., Drozdova N.V.


The paper contains the results of the study on the development of psychological and pedagogical classes in the Orenburg region. The relevance of the study is due to the growing importance of the profile training of senior students of general educational institutions, focused on the teaching profession. Based on the analysis of scientific sources and the accumulated pedagogical experience, the dynamics of the development of psychological and pedagogical classes from the moment of inception to the present day is traced. As the study showed, this phenomenon has not been fully studied in pedagogical science and practice. The aim of the study is to reconstruct the development of psychological and pedagogical classes in Russia and the Orenburg region. The basic methods were: the method of reconstruction, historical and genetic analysis, the method of analytical generalization. The source base of the study was made up of official normative legal documents regulating the development of psychological and pedagogical classes in the 19th–21st centuries, as well as a set of publications on the problem under study. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that the phenomenon under study has passed a long stage in its development. There are two key stages in its development — the second half of the 19th century until the 1960s, when the pedagogical class was considered as one of the forms of training teachers, and from the 60s of the 20th century to the present day — this is a form of pre-profile and profile training of students for the teaching profession. Based on the results of the study, recommendations are given on the need to introduce a systematic and productive practice of networking between general educational organizations, on the one hand, and pedagogical universities, on the other, with the organizational support of education authorities. The introduction of this model will make it possible to move forward in solving an urgent problem for the education system of the Russian Federation — the lack of teaching staff.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):5-18
pages 5-18 views

Didactic game as a means of developing the professionalism of the teacher

Zhurakovskaya V.M., Olicheva O.A.


The research raises and reveals the problem of the development of the teacher’s professionalism. The purpose of the paper is to describe the use, development of didactic games by teachers for students, focused on the development of their individuality, determining the growth of the teacher’s professionalism, expressed in the enhancement of competencies associated with the transfer of external motivation of activity into internal, creative approach of teachers to solving problems. The methodological substantiation of the didactic game is the theory of activity, the coaching approach. The results of the study were the design and testing of didactic games focused on the development of the individuality of students, determining the growth of the teacher’s professionalism. The author’s position on the essence of the proposed didactic game, its structure, the mechanism of transferring external motivation of activity into internal one is marked. The scientific novelty of the research includes the developed didactic game, designed on the basis of the psychological and pedagogical mechanism of transferring the external motivation of activity into the internal one. The theoretical significance of the research lies in the development of the structure of a didactic game (as a system), including interrelated components: a game exercise in a lesson, a business game in a classroom hour, a reflexion of a conscious, free choice/non-choice of activity to solve a problem in society, productive activity in society, reflection on the activities carried out. The practical significance of the research includes the specific didactic games developed by teachers, including the didactic game «On the Approaches to the Throne of Zeus», proposed in the article. The analysis of the results of experimental work on the accompaniment of a teacher in his professional development showed a positive dynamics of the levels of professionalism of the teacher. This allowed the authors of the article to consider the developed means of developing the teacher’s professionalism effective.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):19-34
pages 19-34 views

Distance learning as an unavoidable component of higher education during the pandemic

Ermakova Y.D., Kapustina L.V., Ermakov E.K.


During the short period of time, the situation has changed dramatically and demanded significant correlations of our requirements and priorities in many areas, including the system of traditional higher academic education, which in turn revealed new opportunities, prospects, challenges, and even threats. The usual system of organizing the educational process (tests/exams) which is typical for full-time education is changing now. The initial euphoria from the widespread introduction of distance learning methods is replaced by anxiety and apprehension, taking into account the duration of the changing process of digital learning, as the only alternative platform that allows continuing the implementation of higher education as it is. However, studying the consequences of online learning, most researchers consider the problem: what impact digitalization of education has on a new contingent of students who are more adapted to global digitalization and do not feel stressed implementing new online resources. We could hardly say the same about the teaching staff of universities, where frequently the state of professional and emotional burnout due to the introduced distance learning forms is diagnosed. The purpose of this research consists of determining the correlation between the ratio of e-learning in the total academic load during the coronavirus pandemic and burnout at work among teachers implementing e-learning experience to achieve the best possible results, leveling the consequences of lockdowns, thereby preserving, and possibly expanding the boundaries of students’ professional competencies.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):35-44
pages 35-44 views

Higher school education

Process of cadets’ economic culture development in higher military educational institutions

Shcherbakova A.I.


The paper presents a study of the process of forming and instilling economic culture in cadets of higher military and technical educational institutions of the Russian Federation in conditions of uncertainty. The relevance of scientific research in this area is justified, confirmed by the results of surveys, as well as research in the implementation of educational programs in the discipline «Economics». The contradictions that justify the need to apply new slants in the formation of economic culture, a significant component of the culture of the individual, are revealed. The analysis of scientific sources on this subject is made, which allowed us to characterize the main structural elements of the economic culture of the individual, to form a conceptual apparatus, to study the interpretation of the main terminology in foreign and domestic literature. The application of innovative methods in the field of teaching the discipline, such as a personalized approach, is proposed, which can be used together with basic educational technologies in the process of training in a military educational institution. The article describes the variable resolution of problems and contradictions of a methodological and organizational nature. The use of the proposed options will create a cluster model of the gradual formation of economic culture. The paper presents the pedagogical conditions for the successful implementation of the developed model of instilling economic culture in cadets of higher military educational institutions, allowing to take into account the degree of preparedness of various groups of students, directing them to the assimilation of motivational attitudes of self-development and self-realization. The aspects of using a personalized approach in the process of forming the economic culture of cadets of a special faculty are considered. The results of the application of this approach, while providing the educational process at the special faculty of the Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy (St. Petersburg), are presented. Possible directions and ways of solving the identified problems are proposed, which will allow raising the content aspect of educational programs to a higher level and, as a result, the level of knowledge, skills, attainments and competencies of this area, as well as the process of forming an economic culture.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):45-58
pages 45-58 views

Why and how to create training sessions in the form of a game at a university?

Sharko M.I.


Based on the analysis of the scientific literature, the paper describes the signs of the game as a form of education at the level of higher education, its advantages and disadvantages, methodological recommendations for development. The results of the theoretical study are taken into account when preparing and conducting training sessions in a game form with university students. The generalization of work experience made it possible to determine the algorithm and methods for creating training sessions in a game form, techniques for providing the necessary pedagogical conditions to overcome the shortcomings of the game form. The algorithm includes: targeting based on the formed competence and type of occupation; Definition of activity content; development of a system of training assignments; identification of the features of the group affecting educational and gaming activities; determining a gaming base and a gaming task; selection of methods of influencing the emotional state of students; preparation of educational means. Popular games, plots of famous films are considered as the basis for creation. Two functions of game tasks are highlighted: to serve as a framework for solving the educational task (the quality of the educational task affects game achievements); provide an advantage when performing a training task. Pedagogical conditions for the organization of classes in the form of a game and techniques for their provision are determined: to prevent the fixation of attention exclusively on the game task, students are offered to predict the goal and upcoming activities on the basis of information about the formed competencies, summarizing the results after the completion of each game stage; to take into account the characteristics of the group — the introduction of additional game conditions, modification of the game, organization of educational and gaming activities of each; to ensure compliance with ethical standards — adaptation of well-known stories and forms, control by the teacher and the jury; to create a favorable psychological climate — turning to popular stories and games, using provocative techniques; to provide an assessment system — detailed instruction of jury members, use of various forms of assessment and presentation of work.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):59-72
pages 59-72 views

General psychology

Purposefulness and spontaneity as properties of self-organization of thinking

Dautov D.F., Belousova A.K.


The paper describes thinking as a complex self-organizing system that simultaneously demonstrates such properties as spontaneity and purposefulness. Such an idea of thinking allows us to consider the specific components of thinking involved in its self-organization when processing arrays of information. This is of particular interest for improving tactical and strategic training methods. The main theories of self-organization are described and analyzed. Among the presented theories devoted to the problem of self-organization, special attention is paid to the theory of complex thinking and the theory of autopoiesis, the cybernetic and synergetic approach, the theory of dissipative structures. The description of thinking and related phenomena was based on the theory of cognitive structures, mental models and the theory of double coding. The features characteristic of theories postulating the spontaneous or purposeful nature of complex self-organizing systems are generalized. It is proposed to use a number of general provisions of self-organization theories to describe the processes and structures of thinking. Attention is drawn to the role of verbal and nonverbal components of thinking in its self-organization when working with information. The features of processing symbolic and figurative information at the verbal and non-verbal level are considered. Attention is drawn to the correlation of the conscious and unconscious in the human psyche, with the manifestations of verbal and nonverbal components of thinking. An assumption is made about the features of information processing of the verbal and nonverbal components of thinking. The analysis of their connection with the conscious and unconscious areas of the psyche is carried out. The possible procedural and structural aspects of self-organization of thinking, implemented on the basis of verbal and nonverbal thinking, are determined. The assumption is made about the use of the obtained results in training to improve the efficiency of information assimilation.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):73-90
pages 73-90 views

Projective test of a treason psychological construct

Yusupov I.M.


Treason and betrayal as psychosocial phenomena do not exist independently of a person. Many religions consider them to be a violation of a moral taboo. These deeds, marked since ancient times, are based on unchecked egoistic attitudes of a subject which dominate over the declared social norms, while traditional moral imperatives were always considered values of the society. The triggers of deviation from the accepted norms may be humiliation, envy and many other concomitant determinants which fringe upon a person’s self-esteem.

Treason is a psychological construct which cannot be directly quantitatively measured. By definition, treason is a process of a subject’s secret unilateral abuse of the trusting principles of community members’ coexistence. The most reliable markers of treason are the subject’s behavioral acts, most often performed subconsciously. They are akin to patterns — conservative schemes of behavior which crystallize as a product of additive algorithm as early as in the pre-school childhood. They are not manifested daily, but most often in crisis situations. The frequency of markers’ manifestations may indicate the established complexes; configuration of the latter as a result of an inflicted psychological trauma distorts the deeds normative for the society and serves as a predictor of treason.

The author proposes the following conception: the composition of a treason act ripens from the psychological complexes of a subject, which serve as predictors of the deed; the complexes are represented by complementary dyads: power — fear, offense — revenge, avidity — devaluation of values.

The objective of the theoretical and empirical research is to construct a diagnostic tool based on the protective mechanism of a subject’s projective identification while the subject attests the deeds of a thoroughly familiar person.

The test was validated with the help of volunteers with higher education and academic degrees. The diagnostic scales were normalized with a sigma method on a sample consisting of 242 people. At χ = 8.4 и σ = 2.2, a quintile scale of the subjects’ moral attitudes was calculated. The test reliability by Spearman-Brown formula was +0.76 and validity by criterion was +0.72. The test discriminatory power by Ferguson formula was determined as 0.857 ≈ 0.86.

The test checks on representative sample confirmed its compliance with all psychometric characteristics. Applicability limits were outlined, ulterior prognostic possibilities of the constructed diagnostic tool were revealed.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):91-112
pages 91-112 views

Social psychology

Features of interethnic trust of various ethnic groups representatives of a multicultural region

Alborova A.V., Dreeva S.V.


The paper presents the results of a study conducted in 2021 of perceptions of trust in interethnic relations of representatives of various ethnic groups of a multicultural region. The purpose of the study was to examine the components of trust of ethnophores, to identify ideas about the factors affecting interethnic trust. The study used the author’s methodology to assess the structure of ideas about interethnic trust, trust factors, as well as revealing the self-assessment of the ability to trust in interethnic relations. Respondents were offered a modification of the methodology «Unfinished Sentences» by Sachs Levy in the author’s modification, reflecting the respondents’ understanding of the interethnic aspect of trust and the degree of trusting relationships to individual ethnic groups. When analyzing the features of the ideas of interethnic trust, the methodological development of the assessment of the structure of the ideas of trust was used by M.M. Borisova, S.D. Gurieva. The Student’s t-test was used in the study to determine the statistical significance of differences in average values. The sample consisted of 418 respondents, representatives of ethnic groups of Ossetians, Russians, Chechens, Kabardians, Georgians who live in the territory of the North Caucasus Federal District of the Russian Federation (Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Chechen Republic and Kabardino-Balkarian Republic). The study involved two age groups: the first — respondents from 16 to 25 years old; the second — respondents over 25 years old. The results of our study showed that the cognitive component in the structure of perceptions of trust prevails throughout the sample of subjects, regardless of age and ethnicity. As factors influencing interethnic trust, respondents identified: personal qualities of ethnophores, behavioral characteristics, the history of relations between peoples, social environment, knowledge about other peoples, the state, as well as the media.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):113-126
pages 113-126 views

Educational psychology

Assessment of students’ cognitive abilities by intelligent systems when applying for a job

Sharafieva L.M., Mukhametshin A.G.


The modern information and digital society is radically changing the conditions of life and the ways of social interaction. Intelligent systems are replacing human potential. The replacement of human resources with intelligent systems is happening rapidly and at the same time imperceptibly. Cognitive abilities of students are natural evolutionary-embedded data. The scientific problem of the research consists in the complexity of the phenomenology of the study of unconscious cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to analyze cognitive abilities and develop a barcode card as a method of a unified measurement system. The «Tape line» converter was used in the study, which converts qualitative immeasurable indicators into quantitative ones. The results of the study clearly demonstrate the quantitative characteristics of the range of cognitive abilities available to students. The research contribution consists in several directions: an individual characteristic of each function of cognitive abilities has been developed; in the near digital future, intelligent systems that are able to calculate the amount of functionality of cognitive abilities with the help of a CbS barcode card will hire specialists for work. The value of research work consists in a new way of revealing the inner evolutionary inherent in nature and improved by experience and skills of the range of qualities of cognitive abilities. The practical significance of the results of the work can be implemented as a pilot project in the search system for employees for a certain position.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):127-148
pages 127-148 views

Theory and methodology of education

The image of the teacher Celestine Freinet: explication of conceptual and theoretical concepts (on the occasion of the 125th birthday)

Kochemasova L.A.


The author refers to the legacy of the outstanding French teacher, reformer, politician Celestine Freinet to reveal a special understanding of the nature and process of child development, his philosophical idea of pedagogy. The research made an attempt at a scientific search for questions of interest to a teacher involved in the study of the independent personality of students. Celestine Freinet sought to answer several important questions: Why might children want to learn? What will make them want this? Why might they lack a thirst for knowledge? The paper presents a comprehensive study of the conceptual and theoretical foundations of C. Freinet pedagogy, including an analysis of the image of a modern teacher in his heritage: past, present and future, the humanistic paradigm of education in the pedagogical concept, school self-government, moral and civic education of students as the basis of the Celestine Freinet education system and as a supporter of «inculcating love for work» in the process of educating the younger generation. Rethinking the historical and pedagogical heritage of C. Freinet from the standpoint of the modern development of pedagogical science and practice, the implementation of the leading ideas are the basis for further integration of conceptual humanistic views in the context of the formation of historical and pedagogical competencies of students. The article actualizes the main aspects of the dialectical unity of the continuity of «traditions» (past) — innovations (present to the future)», reflecting the process of transferring the historical and pedagogical heritage to modern educational practice. The author identifies and substantiates a number of theoretical provisions in the system of С. Freinet, implemented in modern conditions of education in the format of the international competition of research and creative works of students «In the world of wise thoughts of domestic and foreign scientists and teachers».

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):149-168
pages 149-168 views

Didactic means of overcoming difficulties in the development process of students’ motivation for creative activity

Ryndak V.G., Saifutdinova G.S., Kozyar M.V.


The research emphasizes the importance of the motivational component in the creative activities of students, notes the correlation of motivational-personal creativity, verbal and non-verbal creativity with academic performance in academic subjects. Difficulties in the development process of students’ motivation for creative activity were determined, the characteristic of pedagogical prevention, pedagogical diagnostics and pedagogical prevention as the didactic means of preventing and eliminating the difficulties in question was provided. The didactic reasons for students’ failures in creative activity (independent and relatively dependent on the teacher) are highlighted. Preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures ensuring the elimination of the above-mentioned causes are justified. The reasons of socio-economic and psychological nature affecting the efficiency of students’ motivation development in creative activity were identified. The results of the teachers’ readiness to overcome difficulties in the motivation development for students to creative activity are given.

Vestnik of Samara State Technical University Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences. 2022;19(2):169-180
pages 169-180 views

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