Assessment of students’ cognitive abilities by intelligent systems when applying for a job

Cover Page

Cite item


The modern information and digital society is radically changing the conditions of life and the ways of social interaction. Intelligent systems are replacing human potential. The replacement of human resources with intelligent systems is happening rapidly and at the same time imperceptibly. Cognitive abilities of students are natural evolutionary-embedded data. The scientific problem of the research consists in the complexity of the phenomenology of the study of unconscious cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to analyze cognitive abilities and develop a barcode card as a method of a unified measurement system. The «Tape line» converter was used in the study, which converts qualitative immeasurable indicators into quantitative ones. The results of the study clearly demonstrate the quantitative characteristics of the range of cognitive abilities available to students. The research contribution consists in several directions: an individual characteristic of each function of cognitive abilities has been developed; in the near digital future, intelligent systems that are able to calculate the amount of functionality of cognitive abilities with the help of a CbS barcode card will hire specialists for work. The value of research work consists in a new way of revealing the inner evolutionary inherent in nature and improved by experience and skills of the range of qualities of cognitive abilities. The practical significance of the results of the work can be implemented as a pilot project in the search system for employees for a certain position.

Full Text

The modern pace of social life requires people to have competencies that would become a springboard in successful interaction in the information and digital society. Understanding that the presence of natural data, which are transmitted by inheritance, are only the foundation of human development, gives an advantage in transformations that a person can improve with the help of self-monitoring. The presence of cognitive abilities: memory, perception, attention are hereditary. At the same time, the range of possibilities under which it is possible to increase the qualitative characteristics of cognitive abilities is much wider. In the near future, intelligent systems will replace humans. The conditions of a market economy dictate a new system of interaction, where it is important for an employer to hire a specialist who would have not only experience, but also a high coefficient of CbS (cognitive abilities) in order to move the market system forward. The problem of the study is that qualitative characteristics cannot be measured either in the international system of units (SI system) or in another system. The preamble of the study is to evaluate the cognitive abilities of students. The concept of "cognitive" came from Latin and means perception, cognition, knowledge. "Cognitive" is a psychological term that characterizes the components of the human psyche and cognitive systems. The measurability of qualitative indicators is one of the complex tasks of both the science of psychology, pedagogy and related sciences. The fact is that human cognition operates with sign-symbolic constructions, meanings and names. Therefore, calculating the quantitative equivalent of cognitive abilities seems to be a difficult task. The relevance of the topic is connected with innovative implementations, with digitalization, with intelligent systems that are included in the daily routine of people's lives. Therefore, the presence of natural components of a person is no longer sufficient to keep up with the current pace of development of man-made transformations of society. Cognitive abilities are a set of thought processes, ways of perceiving the real world. Descartes, Locke, Hume and Leibniz [2], S.L. Rubinstein, L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, V.D. Nebylitsin, B.G. Ananyev, V.N. Myasishchev [3, p.14] and others studied cognitive abilities.

The researchers of Naberezhnye Chelny University asked the following questions: "How to calculate the number of cognitive abilities?", "Which measurement system to choose?" The purpose of the study is to try to create a unified system for measuring cognitive abilities, the calculation system of which will be convenient when hiring for a certain position. The hypothesis of the study is that a unified system for calculating cognitive abilities will allow us to develop a barcode schematic card, where the intellectual system (employer) considers (sees) the spectral range of cognitive abilities of students. The objectives of the research are the following points: to study cognitive abilities in literary sources; to consider methods of calculation: name, designation and other in foreign works; to derive a single form of calculation of cognitive abilities and to create a barcode card of students. The theoretical significance of the study is an attempt to give a quantitative characterization of qualitative indicators. The practical significance of the research is reduced to the use of a single form of calculating cognitive abilities; the development of a working barcode card of the CBS, which will reduce the risk of hiring an incompetent employee or enable an intelligent system to read people's cognitive abilities. In professional activity, a single calculation, as well as a barcode schematic card of cognitive abilities can be applied in any direction necessary for the organization.


Literature review


The presence of cognitive abilities has been studied since antiquity, but the name in each new milestone was dictated in a variety of ways. It should be emphasized that the worldview of society is based on the conceptual apparatus not only of speech construction, but also on the terminology of this time. Thus, in the worldview of thinkers Descartes, Locke, Hume, Leibniz, the meaning and meaning of words and concepts were seen with the help of a mechanistic model of sensations and perceptions [2]. The reflections of Descartes, Kant, Berkeley and Mile were philosophical, but they delved into psychology and pedagogy [1]. V. Wund, with his students, studied by introspection [1]. It is noteworthy that researchers of "their" time do not investigate what is not included in the conscious part of recognition. J. Piaget [4] did not take into account individual differences when describing the stages of intellectual development of elementary school students, since the concepts of "self-identification", self-monitoring", "self-actualization" and so on did not exist in the worldview of that time. Consciousness is the highest mental activity based on knowledge and the conceptual apparatus of society. We emphasize that outstanding thinkers, even with a meager conceptual apparatus, can foresee and theoretically reproduce concepts and theories. So R.Luria [5] described, even before the advent of biophysical mapping methods, the functions of various brain structures. J. Bruno [5, 6] proposed to consider information from the point of view of meaning. Cognitive processes should be interpreted as categories of superimposition on objects. Tsch.Pierce [5] formulated referential knowledge, the doctrine of signs. In the characterization of cognition, models are used, which are ways of recognizing the surrounding world. For example, the information processing model [7, p.23] allows encoding information and extracting it from memory. In other words, models are the foundation or starting point from which one can start describing the objective world. Modern foreign researchers, in an attempt to calculate the amount of cognitive abilities, namely the amount of memory, decided to propose names with the names of computer terminology, that is, computing systems. So the amount of memory in the research papers of Salk, United States of America; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; University of Texas at Austin; University of California, San Diego [8, 9] memory is calculated in Bits, where it is assumed that each synapse contains 4.7 bits. Nicolas Vekoven, a doctoral student at the Laboratory of Systems and Modeling of the University of Liege [10] interprets memory based on the neural networks of the brain as a mechanism of double stability, where a bit stores the amount of memory information for a long time. The cognitive ability "perception" is considered by the constancy of the Werber fraction [11], that the smallest detection of an increase in speed increases with the base or initial speed. Katz [11] identified drifting stimuli, visual viewing angle, perception of object speed, incremental processes by memory of input volume. Ullman [11] considered normalization models implemented by biological systems. Perception is based on conscious choice, Michaels and Correlio indicated [11]. The angular velocity of the curvature of perception underlies the idea of cognitive perceptual abilities. Foreign researchers consider the cognitive ability of perception from the point of view of the direction of the angle of vision. [11-13]. The model, algorithm-code of a triad of computer experiments that can be implemented in modeling calculations of any science is explained [14] in mathematical formulas. F. Donders applied the method of calculating mental processes using a simple formula that boils down to calculating the difference in categorization of stimuli, where the choice reaction is subtracted from the discrimination reaction and the answer is obtained - the time it takes to distinguish stimuli [15, p. 29]. American psychologist W.James [15, p.31] developed a model of the mind. V. Koehler put forward the principle of isomorphism, where the general precedes the particular [15]. The cognitive ability "attention" is outlined by the modern researcher Matthew Robinson [16] as a time amplitude that depends on the process of attention: the longer a person performs a task, the worse his performance. The effectiveness of feedback was calculated by researchers from the University of Texas at Arlington [16] using an experiment where the motivation of vigilance faded and transformed into wandering attention. It should be noted that cognitive abilities are treated differently in different research papers, and different names are also used in the same meanings. Thus, in the studies of foreign researchers, relational thinking is considered, which is essentially abstract. [17-18]. Relational thinking is the ability to create representations in a certain format or a certain complexity, where changing inductive biases plays an important role [18]. Similarly with relational reasoning, for example, that people cannot find what they are not looking for, in fact there are differences only in inductive biases [18]. The direct meaning is the meaning of the sentence: "To see is to believe", where foreign researchers prove judgments [19]. Researchers at Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois, United States of America claim that mechanisms that compensate for the functions of the cerebral cortex, where the previous stimulus affects the processing of later stimuli due to the fact that they have some common characteristics [20]. It should be noted that laboratory methods using devices are used in foreign studies: positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and others. Thus, in the study of priming (refers to a change in the ability to identify or create an object or word as a result of a certain preliminary meeting with the subject), researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology noted that the range of visual perception increases or decreases [21]. In the works of Christopher D. Welhaugh, Matthew S. Smikens, Brigitte A. Moreau, David Kane, Michael J. Markovich [21] processes of memory coverage, which are associated with the functioning of two processes, as suggested by foreign authors, underlie cognitive control: the process of threshold adjustment, which temporarily suppresses motor activity in response to conflict signals, and the process of controlled selection, which uses a top–down system to control the translation of the stimulus-response. Cognitive abilities their priming also depends on the chemical processes taking place in the body. It is important to emphasize that foreign researchers study point fragments of cognitive abilities, for example, the situation, the angle of view: "the eye sees what you are saying" [22], "The change in attention during coding: conclusions from pupillary metry and gaze fixation" [23], "Search fluency as a misleading indicator of memory" [24] and others. Cognitive abilities, in particular cases, are considered both as discrete [25] and as the influence of interference [26].

Let's denote, based on the literature review, a brief description of cognitive abilities:

Attention is the orientation and concentration of consciousness on any object, phenomenon, activity. Directionality means choosing an object, and concentration means distraction from other objects. According to E. Tulving [15, p. 56] attention and consciousness are channels with limited bandwidth. K.Cherry's experiment "shading", on dichotic listening. A person, due to his psychophysiological nature, cannot simultaneously embrace the entire world around him and himself. R. Sollo [15] defines attention as a mechanism of access to consciousness itself. The amount of attention is the amount of simultaneous clear one-time girth or coverage. Simultaneous coverage of the volume of attention is calculated with a tachyhoscope. Simultaneous coverage of 0.1 second of the attention volume of 4-6 objects.

Perception is the process of forming an image of an integral object that directly affects the analyzers. When perceiving the past image, recognition is important, as well as the properties of orientation, views, beliefs, inclinations, interests, feelings experienced by her.

Memory is the designation of a complex of cognitive abilities of higher mental functions. Memory refers to the accumulation, preservation and reproduction of both genetic and acquired skills, knowledge, skills, attitudes, reflexes. G.Ebbinghaus [15] interpreted the forgetting curve based on memorizing meaningless syllables. R.Atkinson and R. Shifrin [15] proposed a memory model as a sensory register, short-term storage and long-term storage.

Thinking is the highest stage of human cognition, the basis of which is the reflection of the surrounding world by means of education, learning, replenishment of knowledge, ideas and concepts, including the implementation of conclusions and the conclusion of new judgments. Thinking is an internal process of representing the external world. With a certain type of thinking, the internal formation of concepts occurs by reflecting reflex attitudes and the form of perception. When processing information on an intuitive level, the characteristics of phenomena and events are grouped into certain aggregates by signs and functions. Thinking is a process of indirect and generalized cognition (reflection) of the surrounding world [28, p.116]. Logic is the science of thinking [29]. Logical thinking is not innate, so it needs to be developed, especially abstract thinking [28].

Imagination is the ability of a person to reconstruct reality, generate autoimages, representations, ideas of objects, by processing the material of perceptions and representations obtained in previous experience. Imagination "cannot create from nothing" [28, p.130]. The mechanism of imagination is reduced to creating images based on existing ones.


Research results


During the study of cognitive abilities of students, students of Naberezhnye Chelny State Pedagogical University were analyzed. Here is an overview of the cognitive ability "attention" of a student (X) of Naberezhnye Chelny University of Naberezhnye Chelny (see table)


Converter "Tape line" conversion of qualitative characteristics "attention" into quantitative

name T/l name T/l name T/l

stability 0.2 braking 0.3 intuitiveness 0.3

directivity 0.1 quality improvement 0.3 consistency with movement 0.3


hold the background 0,2 0,2 0,2 attenuation

selection selectivity 0,2 0,1 0,2 muted

control the preservation 0,2 0,1 0,1 angle of wrap

regulation of 0.1 reaction speed search 0,3 0,1

duration sharpening 0,1 0,3 0,1 vigilance

breadth of coverage 0,1 0,3 proactive detection signal of 0.2

isometrically 0,3 0,3 perenapravlenie concentration of 0.1

activation fixation 0,3 0,4 0,2 switching

the rotation angle of 0.1 regulation of the activities of the coefficient of 0,4 0,3 needs

the angle of the purpose of 0.1 assessment of the location stereotyping 0,3 0,3

relativity General orientation 0,1 0,3 0,2 knowledge itself

the constness of summerlost 0,3 0,3 0,1 causal attribution

switch 0,1 integrity of reflection reflection 0,2 0,2

concentration of 0.2 temporary resistance identification 0,2 0,2

evaluation 0,1 number of receiving information 0,1 0,2 speed adaptation

the conversion inizieremo 0,3 0,1 0,2 social perception

the combination of regularity 0,2 0,3 0,2 movement

duality spatiality 0,1 0,3 0,2 successively

specificity domaintest 0,2 0,2 0,3 premeditation

expansion 0.1 simultaneity 0.2 rationality 0.2

transformation 0.1 regularity 0.2 adaptivity 0.3

synchronicity 0.2 systematization 0.1 understanding 0.2

inductance 0.1 analogy 0.1 deduction 0.2

solution 0.2 goal formation 0.1 cognition 0.1

generalization 0.1 interchangeability 0.1 expressiveness 0.1

analysis 0.1 interconnectedness 0.1 regulation 0.2

notation 0.3 impressiveness 0.1 indicative 0.2

symbolism 0.1 sign 0.1 adjacency 0.2

synthesis 0.1 threshold setting 0.2 informativeness 0.3

creativity 0.1 consistency 0.2 judgment 0.1

autonomy 0.3 variability 0.3 representativeness 0.2

focus 0.3 concentration 0.3 localization 0.3

severity 0.3 consistency 0.2 orientation with symbols 0.1

learnability 0.3 susceptibility 0.3 persistence 0.2

trainability 0.3 periodicity 0.3 instantaneity 0.2

orderliness 0.2 transference 0.1 duration 0.2

variability 0.1 syncretism 0.2 reflexivity 0.2

selectivity 0.1 confinement 0.2 relevance 0.3

recognition 0.3 differentiation 0.1 retroactivity 0.2

preservation 0.2 interference 0.1 situationality 0.3

scan conservatism 0,3 0,1 0,1 conceptuality

reagiruet SemanticNet 0,3 0,1 0,3 maintenance

connectivity visualization 0,2 0,1 0,3 samoderzhavie

perceptively lateral inhibition 0,2 0,2 0,2 depth

systematization 0,2 0,2 definitivamente speed interpretation 0,3

the length of willpower 0,2 0,2 0,2 magnitude of the stimulus

the Association mnemonist 0,1 0,1 0,2 digestibility

observation distinction 0,2 0,2 0,2 integration

the predictability of handling 0,1 0,3 0,1 mobility

acuteness surprise 0,3 0,3 0,4 mobility of the object

the volume of distribution 0,2 0,3 0,3 extensity

track 0,3 collection fragmented multisensorial 0,2 0,1

discrete oscillation 0,1 0,2 read speed of 0.1

the mediation 0,2 strength of the stimulus constructive 0,3 0,1

priming modality 0,1 0,2 0,1 encoding


0.1 effektnosti (transmission of nervous effects on other neurons 0,2 subordination



equivalence sync 0,1 0,1

attentionnot objectivity 0,2 0,2 0,2 structure

the accuracy completeness 0,1 0,1 0,1 meaning

productivity rigidnosti 0,1 1,1 0,1 integrality

reliability 0.1 sensitivity 0.1 impulsivity 0.2


Based on the converter of the tape scale "Tape line", where the maximum is 0.5 T/l, and the minimum is 0.1 T/l, the total CbS index is 94.5T/l, it is possible to calculate the dynamics of the development of the cognitive ability of "attention" in a student (X): (0,1=68); (0,2=73); (0,3=47); (0,4=1); (0,5=0), which is, CbS (X) 35.9 T/l, which is 2.6 times less than the total. Having analyzed each function of cognitive abilities, the student (X) is invited to direct self-monitoring and self-learning to instill the following skills: deliberately increase the time amplitude of attention fixation on a certain subject in order to develop orientation skills; also increase the girth angle, concentration, search and vigilance through daily training exercises; multisensory, reading speed, constructiveness, coding at a low level, since the student, in the conditions of life, did not develop skills that he did not need in everyday life. However, in modern conditions, the speed of reading, the speed of reaction, multisensory are necessary conditions for a successful relationship. Similarly, other cognitive abilities are tested: memory, thinking (logic), perception (gnosis), speech, intelligence, imagination, consciousness.

The diagram shows the range of cognitive abilities of the recipient of Naberezhnye Chelny State University (see figure).






Fig. Barcode diagram of the student's cognitive abilities

Braid (X)33,7 T/l

Colors denote the names of cognitive abilities: blue-attention, red -perception, green-imagination, purple-thinking, blue-intelligence, orange-speech, dark blue-consciousness. Student (X) has a range from 0T/l, to 0.1T/l; a range from 0.1T/l to 0.2; a range from 0.2 T/l to 0.3T/l; a range from 0.3T/l to 0.4T/l; a range of 0.4T/l to 0.5 T/l. As can be seen from the diagram, the predominant green color, the development of imagination: orientation, selection, activation, and others. By looking at a student's barcode, an employer or an intelligent system can recognize the range of development of a student's cognitive abilities and draw appropriate conclusions to hire an employee or refuse him.


Discussion and conclusions


Social interaction involves the maximum use of the opportunities that nature has endowed a person with. The social order, where the digital world inevitably creeps into everyday life, will soon become the everyday norm. Human consciousness is arranged in such a way that by giving the name of each qualitative individual cognitive function, it is possible to realize a gap that is not noticeable to others and to oneself. The barcode schematic card is a new milestone where a person, the creator of his nature, will deliberately increase his cognitive abilities in order to be successful, effective and realized in society.

The tape scale "Tape line" is a converter that allows you to evaluate the potential difference, which is not possible to determine with different report systems. A person's cognitive abilities can only work in a closed system of their natural functions. At this stage of time, a person can only increase the range of natural cognitive abilities. The ability of thinking to work in the mode of logical constructions, the question-answer form, the conclusion of new judgments by means of old ones; the ability of consciousness to realize only what is objectified, has a name and is fixed by attention; the ability of attention to switch towards the angle of notation; the ability of perception to perceive only what you are aware of. A vicious circle where the objective world is visible only through the prism of a person's own analyzers and reflectivity, those insignificant cognitive and cognitive functions that a person has. Naberezhnye Chelny researchers tried to expand the field of awareness by giving a name to each function, method, ability, thereby increasing the range of a person's narrowed consciousness. The bar chart of cognitive abilities is a visual example with which you can visually see the level of development of students, their daily training activities, where you can clearly judge what exactly a student does during the day, because a high range of braids is a direct evidence of daily training exercises. The fact is that cognitive abilities, although given by nature, but their functionality decreases dramatically if they are not used throughout the day, every day. The sharpening of attention and perception increases if the recipient is in conditions where there is a fairly large viewing angle. Developed speech indicates that a person is sociable or reads a lot. The range of the color of thinking in the bar chart of cognitive abilities speaks volumes. The minimal way of thinking indicates that completeness, reliability, intensity, accuracy and the rest function at a low level, which does not allow the recipient to work productively. However, by changing the lifestyle, special exercises and techniques, it is possible to increase the range of cognitive abilities.

Thus, the barcode schematic card of the BRAID gives several positive aspects. First, a visual vision of their strengths and weaknesses in the range of cognitive abilities. Secondly, the intelligent system will be able to count or the employer can evaluate and hire an effective employee. And, thirdly, it will not only change the picture of the natural components of cognitive abilities, but also help to realize in which direction to improve the natural inclinations. The purpose of the study was an attempt to create a barcode-schematic card and a unified system for measuring cognitive abilities, the calculation system of which will be convenient when hiring for a certain position. The unified measurement system was created using the "Tape line" converter. If digitalization is introduced into new ways of hiring intelligent systems, and not people, for example, then the card of cognitive abilities of the CBS will be one of the documents confirming the competence of the employee, past work experience and the availability of other diplomas and diplomas. Further research in the field of cognitive abilities will be aimed at increasing the range of possibilities of cognitive abilities: the form of perception, awareness, ways of thinking that bypass the logical chain, which sometimes does not allow you to see another system of recognition of the objective world.


About the authors

Laysan M. Sharafieva

Naberezhnye Chelny State Pedagogical University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1660-6387
SPIN-code: 5397-6225

Postgraduate Student of Pedagogy and Psychology Department

Russian Federation, Naberezhnye Chelny, Republic of Tatarstan

Azat G. Mukhametshin

Naberezhnye Chelny State Pedagogical University


Doc. Ped. Sci., Professor of Pedagogy and Psychology Department named after Z.T.Sharafutdinov

Russian Federation, Naberezhnye Chelny, Republic of Tatarstan


  1. Anderson D. Kognitivnaia psikhologiia. [Cognitive psychology]. 5-e izd. St. Petersburg, 2012. 433 p.
  2. Merkulov I.P. Kognitivnye sposobnosti. [Cognitive abilities]. Moscow: Logos, 2005. 182 р.
  3. Druzhinin V.N., Ushakov D.V. Kognitivnye sposobnosti. [Cognitive abilities]. Moscow: Persė, 2002. 480 p.
  4. Kholodnaia M.A. Kognitivnye stili. O prirode individualnogo uma. [Cognitive styles. On the nature of the individual mind]. 2-e izd. St. Petersburg, 2004. 384 p.
  5. Velichkovskiĭ B.M. Kognitivnaia nauka: Osnovy psikhologii poznania: [Cognitive Science: Fundamentals of the psychology of cognition] v 2 t. Vol. 1. Moscow: Smysl: Izdatelskiĭ tsentr Akademia, 2006. 448 p.
  6. Belykh T.V. Kognitivnaia psikhologia lichnosti: [Cognitive psychology] uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie dlia magistrov. Izdatelstvo Saratovskogo universiteta, 2015. 93 p.
  7. Solo R. Kognitivnaia psikhologia: [Cognitive psychology]. 6-e izd. St. Petersburg, 2011. 589 p.
  8. Pashler H., Rohrer D. Mcdaniel M., Bjork R. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence/ Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 2008. – Vol. 9(3). – Pp. 105-119. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01038.x
  9. Thomas M. Bartoli Cayley Brammer, et al. Nanoconnectomic upper bound of synaptic plasticity variability. United States of America Research Article. Nov. 30, 2015. Рp. 1–19.
  10. Vecoven N., Damien E. Increasing the memory capacity of intelligent systems based on the function of human neurons. University of Liege. June 8. 2021.
  11. Pashler H., Steven Y. Stevens Handbook of experimental psychology. Third edition. Volume 1: Sensation and Perseption. 2002. 691 p.
  12. Russo D., Ahram T. Intelligent human systems integration proceedings of the 4th international conference. Palermo Italy, 2021. 907 p.
  13. Harris D., Li H. Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: Don Harris, Wen-Chin Li 2021 The 18th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics EPCE. 2021. 457 p.
  14. Demin S.E., Demina E.L. Matematicheskaia statistika: [Mathematical statistics] ucheb.-metod. Posobie. Nizhnetagil. Tekhnol. In-t. Nizhniĭ Tagil: NTI UrFU, 2016. 284 p.
  15. Akhmetova Z.A., Dorokhova S.V. Osnovy kognitivnoĭ psikhologii: [Fundamentals of cognitive psychology] ucheb.posobie. Bishkek: Izd-vo KRSY, 2013. 232 p.
  16. Matthew R.N., Unsworth G.B. Examining the effects of goal-setting, feedback, and incentives on sustained attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. University of Texas at Arlington. October 28. 2021
  17. Lathaas A.C., Prasannab B.S., Hemalathac C.B. Cognitive Systems Research. A harmonized trust assisted energy efficient data aggregation scheme for distributed sensor networks. Volume 56. August 2019. Рp. 14–22.
  18. Weinbergera B.B., Adam E.G. Cognition. Dynamic development of intuitions and explicit knowledge during implicit learning. May 2021. Pp. 1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2021.105008
  19. Mccabe D.P., Castel A.D. Seeing is believing: The effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning. Cognition. Issue 1. April 2008. Pp. 343–352.
  20. Cao F.A., Halid K., et al. Neural correlates of priming effects in children during spoken word processing with orthographic demands. Brain Language Northwestern University. Evanston. IL. USA 114. 2010. Pp. 80–89. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2009.07.005
  21. Welhaf D., Matthew S., et al. Stuart Citation APA PsycArticles Linking the dynamics of cognitive control to individual differences in working memory capacity: Evidence from reaching behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition. 2021. Vol. 47. No. 9. Pp. 1383–1402.
  22. Morett L.M., Fraundorf S.H., et al. Eye see what you’re saying: Contrastive use of beat gesture and pitch accent affects online interpretation of spoken discourse. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 2021. Vol. 47. No. 9, 2021. Pp. 1494–1526.
  23. Miller A.L., Unsworth N. Variation in attention at encoding: Insights from pupillometry and eye gaze fixations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition. 2020. Vol. 46. No. 12. Pp. 27–29.
  24. Stone M., Storm B. Search fluency as a misleading measure of memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition. 2021. Vol. 47. No. 1. Pp. 53–64.
  25. Winiger S., Singmann H., Kellen D. Bias in confidence: A critical test for discrete-state models of change detection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 2021. Vol. 47. No. 3. Pp. 387–401.
  26. Kuhlmann B.G., Brubaker M.S., et al. Longer resistance of associative versus item memory to interference-based forgetting, even in older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning. Memory and Cognition. 2021. Vol. 47. No. 3. Pp. 422–438.
  27. Gapsalamov A.R., et al. Edinaya model’ ocenki kachestva obrazovatel’nogo processa: ispol’zovanie konvertora «Tape line»: [Unified model for assessing the quality of the educational process: using the «Tape line» converter]. Prepodavatel’ XXI vek. Moscow, 2019. Pp. 47–52.
  28. Kruteckij V.A. Psihologiya: Uchebnik dlya uchashchihsya ped. Uchilishch. [Psychology] Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1980. 352 p.
  29. Getmanova A.D. Uchebnik logiki. So sbornikom zadach: [Logic Tutorial: with a collection of tasks] uchebnik. 8-e izd. Moscow: Knorys, 2011. 368 p.
  30. Korneenkov S.S. Koncepcii soznaniya: soznanie kak osoboe svojstvo materii: [The concept of consciousness. Consciousness as a special property of matter]. 2013. No. 3. Pp. 271–305.
  31. Kornienko A.F. Soznanie v psihologii: teoreticheskie aspekty: [Consciousness in psychology. Theoretical aspects]. Kazan’: Izd-vo Pechat’ Servis – XXI vek, 2016. 293 p.
  32. Nemov R.S. Obshchaya psihologiya [General psychology]. V 3 t. Vol. II v 4 kn. Kniga 4. Rech’. Psihicheskie sostoyaniya: uchebnik I praktikum dlya vuzov. Moscow : Izdatel’stvo Yurajt, 2021. 243 p.
  33. Hajnc L. Uchebnik ritoriki Trenirovka rechi s uprazhneniyami [Textbook of rhetoric. Speech training with exercises]. Izdatel’stvo: Interekspert. Moscow, 1999. 110 p.
  34. Holodnaya M.A. Psihologiya intellekta. Paradoksy issledovaniya: [Psychology of intelligence. Psychology of research]. Ucheb. Posobie dlya bakalavriata I magistratury. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Yurajt, 2019. 334 p.
  35. Vodyaha Y.E. Psihologicheskaya diagnostika sfer lichnosti: [Psychological diagnostics of personality spheres]. Ekaterinburg, 2018. 220 p.
  36. Batarei testov [Battery tests] CogniFit [elektronnyj resurs]. 2020. 35 p.
  37. Kuznecov A.P., Vasil’eva Y.A. Psihofiziologicheskaya diagnostika cheloveka: [Psychophysiological diagnostics of a person]. Metodicheskie ukazaniya k vypolneniyu laboratornyh rabot dlya studentov. Kurgan: Kurganskij gosudarstvennyj universitet, 2017. 23 p.
  38. Kornev A.N. Narushenie chteniya I pisma u detej: [Impaired reading and writing in children] uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie. St. Petersburg, 1997. 286 p.
  39. Mironova E.E. Sbornik psihologicheskih testov [Collection of psychological tests]. Moscow: Zhenskij institut Envila, 2005. 155 p.

Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig.

Download (190KB)

Copyright (c) 2022 Sharafieva L.M., Mukhametshin A.G.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies