Russian as a foreign language in higher education: systematic approach to teaching vocabulary

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The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of vocabulary learning in the process of teaching Russian as a foreign language at a university. The main aspects, methods and techniques of working with lexical material depending on the stage of training are briefly highlighted. The purpose of the research is to substantiate the systemic systematic approach to teaching vocabulary. The research provides example materials and methods as well as teaching strategies for mastering vocabulary. The authors conclude that the research work points out the importance of systemic criteria in the process of mastering the grammatical and vocabulary material as well as the development of speech skills and abilities. The work contributes to the methodology of teaching of military and engineering students. The practical significance of the results of the study is due to the discussion and conclusion of the peculiarities of vocabulary learning in the process of teaching Russian as a foreign language in higher education.

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The problem of learning vocabulary by foreign students in the process of mastering the Russian language is one of the most important problems of teaching Russian as a foreign language.

О.V. Klokova believes that mastering foreign language vocabulary means memorizing the meaning and form of the lexical units determined by the curriculum; using these units in various kinds of speech activity; understanding words when listening or reading [1, p. 119–120].

The problem of the lexical material selecting that should make up the students’ vocabulary is one of the main teaching tasks.

Teaching Russian speech to foreigners is connected with mastering different layers of Russian vocabulary, including different categories.

The theoretical and practical significance for the development of methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language is determined by success expressed be the correlation with the planned results of mastering the educational program.

The articles is based on the already achieved results, reflected in other studies and shares the practical findings and experience of the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language in the institutions of higher education of military and engineering specialization (Branch of Military Educational-Research Centre of Air Force Academy after pr. N.E. Zhukovsky and Y.A. Gagarin and Samara State technical University). Special attention is paid to the introduction of new facts, conclusions, recommendations, and regularities into the practical use of the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language.

Literature Review

A large number of scientific and methodological works are devoted to the study of vocabulary learning [1–16].

V.N. Wagner states that in accordance with the selected speech topics and meanings of the statement a systematic organization of the lexical material is carried out. Due to the complexity, fragmentation and diverse nature, it is impossible to use a single classification criterion. Methodologically, it is rational to use the following criteria: thematic, logical-semantic and structural-grammatical». [2, p. 60].

According to O.V. Klokova, systematization requires certain techniques to reveal information about the meaning of a word, so visualization, word interpretation, definition of synonyms or antonyms, the context consideration gives an objective characteristic of the material being studied [1, p. 121].

Е.I. Zinovieva and A.V. Khrunenkova highlight that when teaching vocabulary it is necessary to consider the interrelation of all language levels: lexical, phonetic, word-formation, morphological and syntactic. At the present stage, vocabulary in the practical course of the Russian as a foreign language course is considered asa linguistic aspect characterized by the quality of being systemic [3, p. 13].

В.S. Tikhonovich and V.A. Astapenko consider the psychological and neurophysiological basis of the perception of foreign language vocabulary, which contributes to the volume increase of vocabulary memorization and learning, as well as automation of the correct use of lexical units [Tikhonovich]. The authors state that the lexis semantization and the word content disclosure are difficult methodological problems [4, p. 45].

А.A. Akishina and O.E. Kagan interpret lexical semantization as an explanation of the meaning of new, unknown words in different ways [5].

I.V. Bogatyreva and N.M. Rumyantseva note that methodologists distinguish three basic principles of vocabulary work organizing: thematic; structural-grammatical; logical-semantic. The unity of the basic principles contributes to the learning ofa sufficiently large number of lexical units [6, p. 88].

I.A. Bolgert, addressing the problem of the effectiveness of the organization of lexical material in the study of Russian as a foreign language at the initial and subsequent stages, comes to the conclusion that the organization of educational material should be carried out by combining different principles and approaches, the first of which is thematic principle [7, p. 354].

When selecting and organizing the lexical material are to be determined by: conscientiousness, communicativeness, oral advancement, the native language of students, situational and thematic presentation of the training material, visualization, consideration of national and cultural characteristics of the country of the studied language [8, p. 4].

According to A.V. Radkevich, the knowledge of lexical semantics cannot be limited to producing a text (statement), but should be «based on understanding the structure of the Russian word and grammatical processes that form the basis of literate speech and is necessary for understanding the Russian culture as a whole». [9, p. 400].

А.Е. Agmanova and B.M. Asmagambetova believe that the optimal mastering of Russian vocabulary by foreign-language students depends on many factors. The authors point out the importance of the formation of «foreign-language inner speech, a special speech mechanism, different from the one formed during the native language learning». [10, p. 7].

Taking into account the linguistic specificity of the Russian language and the native language N.A. Kindrya states that it is necessary to have a differentiated approach to the selection, organization and presentation of the lexical and phraseological material to students, organization of the process of fixing the lexical material and the corresponding construction of the learning process [11, p. 46]. The scientist notes that lexical and phraseological units in the teaching of foreign language students should be selected in such a way that the student had an idea not only about the lexical composition of the language, but also about cultural background, ethnic characteristics, mentality, country-specific concepts [11].

N.P. Khryashcheva considers the stages of formation of professionally oriented vocabulary [12].

О.V. Chagina focuses on the use of Russian proper names in speech as part of the study of vocabulary by foreign students [13]. The researcher believes that the correct use of proper names by foreigners is associated with different aspects of the language - vocabulary, grammar, phonetics and stylistics, and the latter aspect is no less important than the others and is directly connected with the problem of speech culture [13, p. 511].

N.V. Bogdanova and N.N. Nemich consider the issue of studying Russian vocabulary and phraseology by the cadets of Air Force Academy. The authors describe the teaching visualization methods and offer a set of tasks with the Russian phraseological units [6].

Materials and methods

There are four types of speech activity: speaking, writing, listening and reading. These are the components of the system of our linguistic existence. We believe that systematic approach to teaching vocabulary should be interrelated with the process of mastering the grammatical and vocabulary material as well as the development of speech skills and abilities.

The systematic approach is related to the selection and organization of the Russian vocabulary. In modern textbooks, lexical tasks are most often correlated with texts. The lexical content and grammatical structure of texts should comply with the stage of training and the requirements determined by the educational level standards for Russian as a foreign language.

Textbooks on the Russian language provide an opportunity for mutual support in the important process of interdisciplinary coordination, which, no doubt, is primarily implemented at the lexical level too. Each new text is supposed to expand active vocabulary, create potential vocabulary, and contribute to the development of the skill of transferring the use of new words in different subject contexts. The repetition of a word is best carried out in several texts, since the learner involuntarily has to recall the studied words found in new texts.

There are certain methods of the selection of lexical material. The primary method in this process is played by the vocabulary selection.

The basic principles of the selection of lexical units include: the thematic principle, the principle of frequency of use of a lexical unit, the principle of semantic value, the principle of compatibility, the principle of word-formation value, etc.

The principle of semantic value is based on the inclusion in the dictionary of lexical units denoting concepts and phenomena most commonly found in educational texts. The semantic value of words is associated with the designation of important socio-cultural concepts that are often found in the reality of objects and phenomena [7, p. 354].

The analysis of modern textbooks on Russian as a foreign language shows that the thematic principle, which takes into account primarily the content of the educational program, is the most common methodological principle [7, p. 354].

Among the methods used in teaching Russian as a foreign language there are explanatory-illustrative (informational-receptive), reproductive, and research ones. It should be noted that electronic dictionaries being a source of high-quality reference guide are used as a modern tool for teaching and learning foreign languages [14].

Research results

The Russian Language teachers of the Department of the Branch of Military Educational-Research Centre of Air Force Academy after pr. N.E. Zhukovsky and Y.A. Gagarin use various teaching techniques based on visibility. First of all, the introduced language material is carefully selected: it should be systematically organized into thematic groups.

Thematic selection of lexical material involves the definition of words and expressions of a certain topic necessary for communication on a particular theme. Based on this criterion, in accordance with the solved communicative tasks, the lexical units are selected on the following topics that are studied at the university at the initial stage of teaching Russian as a foreign language. The topics include: «My family», «Ina cafe, in a store, at the post office», «Studying at the university. In the dormitory», «The city where I live», «Gifts, souvenirs», «Hero cities», «Moscow», «Profession», «Aviation and Cosmonautics», «Cosmonaut pilots», «Speech etiquette», etc.

Work with vocabulary at the initial stage is organized in stages:

  1. formation of lexical skills,
  2. improving lexical skills,
  3. inclusion of lexical skills in speech activity,
  4. organization of repetition of learned vocabulary,
  5. control over the formation of lexical skills and abilities.

According to the systematic approach the study of vocabulary is combined with the study of grammar and the development of speech skills and abilities.

The introduction of a new lexical unit involves directly presenting and explaining the meaning. The presentation considers the context.

When explaining the meaning – the semantics of a lexical unit – various methods are used: the use of clarity (it can be pictures, surrounding objects, presentations), the selection of synonyms or antonyms, translation into the native language, etc.

The next stage of the work is the organization of the assimilation of new vocabulary by performing various kinds of language and speech exercises. The ability to recognize a lexical unit in speech and in the text contributes to the formation of the skill of its use and develops speech skills.

There are a large number of exercises to consolidate and activate the use of the studied lexical units in speech.

For example, when working with lexical material, cadets are offered a rectangle (drawn on paper or on a blackboard) divided into four parts. The first three cells contain words united by a certain theme, the corresponding pictures are next to them, and the word is closed in the fourth. Students are to name a word that can be placed in the fourth cell.







At an advanced stage at Samara State Technical University this type of task involves other lexical units, words and word combinations or sentences in accordance with the curriculum and the topic of the study. For example, “Education”



Кандидат наук




Практическое занятие

Лабораторная работа




This technique is used to consolidate vocabulary, control its assimilation. At the same time, the form of work can be individual work (rectangles are used for self-control) in pairs or small groups for the students of different levels.

This technique can be used at various stages of practical training: at the beginning – it serves as a support for conducting speech warm–up activities; in the main part – to create a game situation: «Guess what word is written in the fourth cell, and you will find out what the topic of the lesson will be.» You can offer several rectangles in which you need to choose the words that correspond to the topic.

You can also use special cards to present the vocabulary you need. On one side there is an illustration of the word, on the other the word and its transcription is written. One card is issued to each student who pronounces his word in a chain, then the work goes on in groups: students hold the card so that the others do not see what is written on it. Students try to remember the name of each picture, and if they fail, they can ask for help from the one who has the card.

At the middle stage of training, the work on activating lexical and grammatical material is based on the text. Each theme begins with the introduction of a new vocabulary, and then there are pre text and post-text tasks. They are necessary to activate oral and written speech, develop skills and abilities to process information of a special nature.

Students are offered the following tasks:

  1. read the text;
  2. write out the words from the text by thematic groups;
  3. match synonyms (antonyms) to the highlighted words;
  4. form adjectives from nouns;
  5. make a sentence based on the reference words;
  6. answer the questions;
  7. title the text, etc.

When studying the topic «The city in which I live», students are invited to study the text «Topographic map», which focuses on the use of Russian proper names (names of geographical objects). When working with this text, it is necessary to use visibility materials: a topographic map of Syzran/Samara.

For example

Read the text. Mind the stress



Teachers of Air Force Academy have developed Methodological recommendations for working on vocabulary:

  1. To successfully complete lexical and grammatical exercises, learn words, including their derivatives and the most common phrases. Translate all the examples into your native language. Pay special attention to the prepositions in the phrases.
  2. When performing exercises, constantly refer to the dictionary. Exercises for paraphrasing and translation should be performed in writing. When translating, strive to ensure that the sentences are grammatically correctly constructed and sound natural, while not distorting the meaning, use ready-made phrases and phrases from the texts of the lesson and exercises.
  3. When performing word formation exercises, be sure to check your variants of derivatives according to the dictionary. Make sure that you can translate all the words you have formed into your native language. If you need to fill in the gaps with derivatives in the exercise, first determine which part of speech the derived word should belong to and use the appropriate word-forming means (prefixes and suffixes).
  4. Working with vocabulary at the middle stage involves familiarity with special vocabulary. Thus, in the classes on the scientific style of speech, when semanticizing special vocabulary and terminology, translation into the native language, selection of synonyms, antonyms, generic concepts to specific, word-formation analysis, description or interpretation of the meaning of new words in Russian or the native language of students are actively used.
  5. Combining lexical units into thematic groups, micro fields facilitate the understanding and memorization of new words in the discipline.
  6. Working with unfamiliar vocabulary within a thematic group is carried out in various ways. The professional vocabulary demands word-formation analysis, which is carried out under the guidance of a teacher to reveal the word meaning. Words denoting the qualities of objects are semanticized using synonymic and antonymic paradigms. For example, when studying the text «Aviation missiles», the following tasks are offered:

Read the words and phrases, determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from the dictionary.

старт (м.р.)

старт (чего?) ракеты

место (чего?) старта

пускать – пустить (что? куда?)

запускать – запустить

пуск (м.р.)

поверхность (чего?) земли



корректировать – скорректировать (что?)

корректирование (ср.р.) (чего?)

корректирование полета, направления

возможность (чего?) корректирования

изменять – изменить (что?)

изменение (чего?) направления

располагать – расположить (что?)

расположение (чего?) цели

дальность (какая?) малая, средняя и большая

боекомплект (= боевой комплект)

самонаведение (= сам, наводить)

Read the abbreviations.

БТР – бронетранспортёр

ТТХ – тактико-технические характеристики

ЛА – летательный аппарат

УАР – управляемая авиационная ракета

НАР – неуправляемая авиационная ракета

Match the synonyms.

Образец: место старта – место пуска


место старта

место расположения


средства поражения



место пуска


место нахождения



The techniques of semanticizing special vocabulary and terminology in Russian language classes aimed at the formation of lexical skills in foreign servicemen at the middle stage of training are considered in [15].

Assignment for home work on the topic «In the city» (1 semester) at Samara state technical university are supposed to teach the students studying Russian as a foreign language to use vocabulary on a given topic in oral and written speech practice, to produce their own coherent statements on the topic «In the city»

Read the names of theaters, museums, streets, avenues and metro stations. Pay attention to the ways these names are formed. (Photos of objects are used when performing this exercise).

Театры Самары

Самарский академический театр оперы и балета имени Д.Д. Шостаковича, Самарский академический театр драмы им. М. Горького (Драмтеатр), Театр «Самарская площадь», Самарский театр кукол, Театр юного зрителя (СамАрт), Самарский художественный театр, Театр кукол «Лукоморье».

Музеи Самары

Музей модерна, Особняк А.П. Курлиной, Самарский областной историко-краеведческий музей им. П.В. Алабина, Музейно-выставочный центр «Самара космическая», Культурно-выставочный центр «Радуга» г. Самара.

Улицы /Проспекты/переулки/шоссе, тупики, проезды

Улица Молодогвардейская, улица Куйбышева, улица Рабочая, улица Гагарина, улица Водников, проспект Ленина, проспект Победы, Студенческий переулок, Заводское шоссе, Заводской тупик, Рабочий проезд, Пугачёвский тракт.

Match the columns

1. Тупик

а. По старым правилам градостроительства они служили для соединения нескольких больших улиц, которые расходились в разные стороны от одной центральной площади, как лучи от солнца.

2. Бульвар

б. Слово взято из латинского языка (prospectus) и обозначает перспективу с хорошим видом.

3. Переулок

в. Такая дорога ведет к какому-нибудь значимому месту, из которого нет выезда.

4. Проезд

г. Это мощеная дорога внутри населенного пункта, являющаяся одним из основных элементов городской инфраструктуры. Она имеет, как правило, индивидуальное названиеи служит для соединения нескольких кварталов или районов между собой.

5. Проспект

д. Это небольшая дорога внутри жилых кварталов, предназначенная для транспортировки грузов к значимым объектам, в том числе к магазинам, предприятиям или организациям.

6. Улица

е. Это широкая аллея (или парк) вдоль улицы, предназначенная не только для движения транспорта, но и для прогулок жителей города.

7. Тракт

ж. Это название пришло из немецкого языка. Это большая дорога, а слово tractus в латинском языке обозначает «волочение».


Odd one out

аптека – булочная – пекарня – овощной магазин – кулинария – кафе

рынок – вокзал – больница – ферма

дом – ангар – гараж – шалаш

фитнес центр – стадион – школа – корт

детский сад – школа – завод

парикмахерская – прачечная – ремонт обуви – ателье – больница

театр – кинотеатр – музей – ярмарка – выставка

такси – метро – автобус – трамвай – троллейбус

Match the columns

  1. постройка а. место, где строят
  2. стройка б. помещение, в котором живут
  3. жилище в. здание, которое построили

Write an essay about theaters in your country. The words and phrases given in parentheses will help to tell.

  1. What theaters and concert halls are there in your city/country? (drama, musical, opera, puppet theater; ballet theater, pantomime, shadows).
  2. What kind of performances do you have in the city? (theatrical, folk, circus, New Year, festive, carnival, comic, musical).
  3. Do you often go to the theater? And for concerts? (watch a play, performance, ballet; listen to music, opera, concert).

Discussion and conclusions

To sum it up, it is necessary to mention that the results obtained in the course of the study correlate with the already existing theoretical and practical knowledge in the sphere of the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language. The focus of the problem is on the systematic approach to teaching vocabulary in the institutions of higher education of military and engineering specialization (on the examples of Branch of Military Educational-Research Centre of Air Force Academy after pr. N.E. Zhukovsky and Y.A. Gagarin and Samara State technical University). The authors believe that systematic approach to teaching vocabulary should be interrelated with the process of mastering the grammatical and vocabulary material as well as the development of speech skills and abilities. The same types of lexical tasks can be used in different stages varying the lexical units and lexical unit categories. The practical significance of the research and the main directions for further research in this area can be determined by the research aims of teaching methodology.


About the authors

Аnna A. Khokhlova

Samara State Technical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4017-6997

Lecturer, Foreign Languages Department

Russian Federation, 224, Molodogvardeyskaya st., Samara, 443100

Natalya N. Nemich

Branch of Military Educational-Research Centre of Air Force Academy named after Prof. N.E. Zhukovsky and Y.A. Gagarin

Author for correspondence.

Lecturer, Russian Language Department

Russian Federation, 1, Marshala Zhukova st., Syzran, 2446007, Samara region


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